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直接引语变间接引语的五点变化

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  直接引语变间接引语的五点变化

  1. 时态的变化

  直接引语变为间接引语时,若主句为过去时态,变为间接引语的宾语从句通常要将时态往后推一个,即:一般现在时变为一般过去时,一般将来时变为过去将来时,现在进行时变为过去进行时,现在完成时变为过去完成时,一般过去时也变为过去完成时,等等(若直接引语为过去完成时,变为间接引语可以不变)。另外,若直接引语中有情态动词can, may等,也应变成过去式could, might等(情态动词must可以变为had to,也可不变,should, ought to, had better 等可以不变):

  “I want to stay here.” he said. 他说:“我想留在这儿。”

  →He said that he wanted to stay there. 他说他想留在那儿。

  She said, “It’s raining very hard.” 他说:“雨下得很大。”

  →He said that it was raining very hard. 他说雨下得很大。

  Jim said, “I can speak Chinese.” 吉姆说:“我会讲汉语。”

  →Jim said that he could speak Chinese. 吉姆说他会讲汉语

  (1) 若直接引语为客观真理,则变为间接引语时时态不变:

  He said, “The sun rises in the east.” 他说:“太阳从东方升起。”

  →He said that the sun rises in the east. 他说太阳从东方升起。

  (2) 有时由于直接引语有特定的过去时间状语,变为间接引语时时态也可不变:

  He said, “ was born in 1988.” 说:“我是1988年生的。”

  →He said that he was born in 1988. 他说他是1988年生的。

  2. 时间状语的变化

  直接引语变间接引语时,有些时间状语根据情况也要相应的改动:如将now改为then,将today 改为that day,将tonight改为that night,将yesterday改为the day before,将this month改为that month,将last week改为the week before,将three years ago改为three years before,将tomorrow改为the next day,将next year改为the next year,等等:

  He said, “I’m very busy now.” 他说:“我现在很忙。”

  →He said that he was very busy then. 他说他当时很忙。

  He said, “I want to leave today.” 他说:“他想今天离开。”

  →He said that he wanted to leave that day. 他说他想那天就离开。

  He said, “She left yesterday.” 他说:“她昨天离开了。”

  →He said that she had left the day before. 他说她前一天就离开了。

  She said, “I’ll tell you tomorrow.” 她说:“我明天告诉你。”

  →She said that she would tell me the next day. 她说她第二天告诉我。

  以上变化有时应视情况而定,若在当时转述,now不必改为then;若在当天转述,today, yesterday, tomorrow等不必改为that day, the day before, the next day等;若在当周转述,this week, last week 不必改为that week, the last week;若在当年转述,this year, last year 不必改为that year, the last year等。

  3. 代词的变化

  在直接引语变为间接引语时,有些代词也要作相应的变化,如指示代词this和these通常变为that和those。同时人称代词、物主代词、反身代词等也要根据具体情况作出合理的调整:

  He said, “This is my seat.” 他说:“这是我的座位。”

  →He said that that was his seat. 他说那是他的座位。

  “I can look after myself.” she said. 她说:“我能照顾自己。”

  →She said that she could look after herself. 她说他能照顾自己。

  若场所和地点不发生改变,this和that也可以不变。

  4. 地点状语的变化

  主要涉及的地点状语是here,它在间接引语中通常要变为there:

  “I live here now.” he said. 他说:“我现在住在这里。”

  →He said that he lived there then. 他说他当时住在那儿。

  若在当地转述,则here也可不必改为there。

  5. 动词的变化

  直接引语变为间接引语时,有个别动词也可能需要改变,如come改为go,bring改为take等:

  “He will come today.” she said. 她说:“他今天会来。”

  →She said that he would go that day. 她说他那天会去。

  若地点和场所未发生改变,come和bring等也可不变。

 

  

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